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Developments Preceding the European Industrial Revolution : A 5 page survey of the major developments that lead to the European Industrial Revolution. Writer traces major religious, political and economic developments from 1100 A.D. up through the Eighteenth century. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Eurind.wps

Changes In European Social Groups, Economics, & Religions From 800-1400 AD : This brief, 3 page essay looks at changes that swept the entire cultural fabric of Europe in the Middle Ages. Bibliography lists two sources. Socecre.wps

The Reformation In Germany And In England – Role Of The Renaissance : This 3 page essay looks at the two Reformations of England and Germany. It also reviews the role played by the Renaissance in the events. Bibliography lists three sources. Reforma.wps

Renaissance Period & Modern Contemporary Age / Compared and Contrasted : A 9 page paper examining the similarities and differences between the European Renaissance and the twentieth century world in terms of the state of the world and ideas as a means to greater human understanding, as reflected in art, architecture, literature, philosophy, and science. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Rencon.wps

Humanism’s Contribution To The Reformation : A 6 page paper discussing the role of humanistic thought in the Reformation. Many believe "humanism" to be an arrogance embodied in an attitude that reflects the 1970s attitude of the "I’m OK, you’re OK" ilk. Most of those would be incredulous to learn that humanism, far from being an arrogance of single human worth, was as a movement and attitude of believing that humans could be far more than they had been until the time toward the end of the Dark Ages. We know today that there are factions that agree only on few items aside from the basics of Christianity (i.e., Jesus is God’s Son), but today’s Christianity is largely based on the humanism that helped drive the Reformation more than 400 years ago. Bibliography lists 4 sources. MLuther.wpd

The History Of Islamic Capture Of Spain : 15 pages in length. At the time when Spain was converted to Islam, North African armies were instrumental in initiating the centuries-long Moorish epoch. Seven eleven was the year that Tarik ibn Zizad and his army of twelve thousand soldiers entered Spain. The Berber and Tangier governor arrived as guests of a Visigothic clan in order to add their support to King Roderic's impending ascension; however, when the king ultimately met his fate while in battle, he left Spain without a leader. The writer discusses the occurrences after the Islamic capture of Spain. Bibliography lists 8 sources. IslamSpn.wps

Ferdinand Of Aragon & Isabel Of Castile : This 7 page analysis looks at Spain during the reign of Ferdinand and Isabel during the 15th century. Their union resulted in a unification never before seen in Spain. Bibliography list five sources. Aragon.wps

Alvar Cabeza De Vaca y Nunez : A 5 page paper on the story of Cabaza de Vaca -- a relatively unknown explorer. It tells of the tragic and exciting account of the Spain’s attempt in 1528 to colonize Florida, and also briefly talks about Cabaza's life before and after his journeys. Cabeza.wps

Assessing Three Themes From The Voyage Of Cabeza De Vaca : 5 pages in length. The writer discusses the following three themes in relation to Cabeza de Vaca's voyage: how the Spaniards and Indians viewed one another; Spaniard hatred and racism toward the Indians; and assimilating into Indian culture. Bibliography lists 4 sources. TLCdvaca.wps

St. Ignatius Loyola Examined : This 5 page research paper explores the life and spiritual journey of St. Ignatius Loyola, Spanish nobleman turned founder of the Society of Jesus Jesuit mission. Specifically discussed are the circumstances which led him to dedicate his life to God, his "Spiritual Exercises," which laid the foundation for his order known for both spirituality and education. Bibliography lists several sources. Stignat.wps

Seventeenth Century Scientific Revolution : A 6 page review of the scientific advancements in the Seventeenth Century and how these changes affect the current Twentieth Century Western World. Bibliography lists 4 sources. SciRev17.wps

1600 - 1700 / Changes In Europe : A 5 page examination of the changing attitudes of people from the seventeenth century to the eighteenth century in Europe. Discusses the quest for new answers and the willingness of people to make decisions simply based on their own needs and desires. Bibliography lists three references. Eur1718.wps

The Use of Torture in Crime and Punishment in the 16th Century : A 10 page research paper that discusses the use of torture in the power struggle that was being played out between the Catholic Church and the rising tide of Protestantism. The writer argues that it was used quite successfully by both sides. The Catholic Church used torture via the various tribunals of the Inquisition to successfully suppress even the mildest hints of disobedience to church authority, while 16th century author John Foxe used descriptions of torture against Protestant martyrs to cement the reign of Queen Elizabeth I in England as well as insuring the continuation of Protestantism within that country. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Torture.wps

Long Distance’s Increasing Importance : A 4 page paper discussing reasons for greater incidence and growing importance of long distance migration since the 16th century. There were nearly as many reasons as there were immigrants, not all of them voluntary. The paper discusses Australia as an early British penal colony; the German pioneering spirit and love of culture; and of course the shame of American slavery. The three groups are discussed in terms of their reasons for emigrating, their reception in their new country and the post-migration adaption. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Migrlong.wps

The Black Plague in England : A 5 page research paper that examines how the Black Plague affected social change in English society. The writer demonstrates that the sudden reduction of the English population by roughly one-third created a severe labor shortage. This shortage, while it greatly enhanced the value of the labor of the peasantry, also speeded up the processes of change and ultimately contributed to the decline of feudalism. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Blacplaq.wps

(The) Black Death in Europe : An 8 page paper on the social and political occurrence and consequence of the Black Death (the bubonic plague) in Europe. The writer discusses various relevant issues including the art which resulted from the devastation and even the persecution of Jews as the group supposedly responsible for bringing the plague (western civ). Bibliography included. Blackdea.wps

The Black Plague : This 5 page paper is a fictitious depiction of an artisan dying of the plague in Medieval times. Explanations of the reality of the times are clarified and documented. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Medblp.wps

The Black Death in Europe : In 6 pages the author discusses the Black Death in Europe.The Black Death was also known as the Black Plague. This plague was catastrophic to the population of Europe during the fourteenth century. The Black Death killed a great number of the population. It knew no cultural or socioeconomic boundary, killing peasant and aristocrat alike. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Blkdth.wps

Social Changes Resulting From Bubonic Plague : A 6 page paper discussing both immediate and long-lasting changes brought on by necessary shifts in custom in response to the loss of 1/3 of Europe’s population during the Black Death. The Black Plague put the entire structure of society in flux as people lived in very fear for their lives and tried to deal with life in as normal manner as possible while half cities fell all around them. Perhaps the most lasting changes arose from the necessity of letting "new blood" into established institutions such as law and medicine in order to assure their continuance. These people brought new patterns of thinking, and many of them may have never had any other opportunity to rise beyond their peasant status had the plague not made both land and position available. It was a time of the first respect for the power of labor, and it was the time of the first recorded persecution of the Jews. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Bubplag.wps

The Bubonic Plague -- Compared With The A.I.D.S. Plague : In this insightful 5 page essay, the writer discusses similarities between the Bubonic, or "Black Plague" (a.k.a. "Black Death") of the 14th century, and the modern-day A.I.D.S. crisis. Public health and social issues are taken into consideration as they relate to each of the two societies discussed. Stereotypes, discrimination, and popular fears are analyzed as well. Bibliography lists 2 sources. Bubonaid.wps

Jews During the Ottoman Empire : A 10 page paper tracing the history of the Jews and their persecution during the Ottoman Empire. Discusses the history of the Jews leading up to the Ottoman Empire to establish a background for understanding the persecution during the empire's 600 year existence. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Jewsotto.wps

Comparison Turkey with its roots in the Ottoman Empire : A 12 page research paper that examines the development of the modern Turkish state and compares this to roots as part of the Ottoman Empire. The writer concludes that Turkey will have to address its human rights abuses before it can fully realize its dream of becoming a fully modernized part of the global community. Bibliography lists 8 sources. Turkotto.wps

Medieval Times -- Are "The Dark Ages" An Appropriate Term ? : This 8 page paper looks at Medieval Times, asking whether or not the term dark ages adequately describes the historical period. The middle ages are discussed in terms of its historical place as well as its characteristics. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Dkages.wps

Medieval Judaism : A 3 page essay responding to the lot of the Jewish in the Middle Ages. The paper mentions the premier Jewish philosopher of the era, Maimonides, and a few of his positions that are tenets of Orthodox Jewish doctrine today. It glances at the fact that practicing Jews, through application, education and commitment, are generally effective at their work, regardless of what that work might be, and that the anti-Semitism of the time might have sprung more from envy than from dogmatic differences. Bibliography lists 2 sources. Jews.wps

Medieval Coinage : In this 8 page research paper, the writer examines issues and circumstances concerning the coining of money during medieval times. Economic situations are assessed and the overall impact that coining had over the centuries is determined. Bibliography lists 8 sources. Coins.wps

Teutonic Knights : A 6 page research paper that looks at the history of the Teutonic Knights, a military-religious order similar to the better known Templar or Hospitaller Orders of the middle ages. The Teutonic Knights were responsible for bringing Christianity to Eastern Europe through numerous crusades that lasted through to the fifteenth century. Bibliography lists 3 sources. Teutonic.wps

Scholasticism Of The Middle Ages : This 5 page paper looks at Scholasticism of the high Middle Ages and compares it with other religions of that era and of later time periods. The position of doubt in theology is one concept explored. Bibliography lists 5 sources Stism.wps

Medieval Monasticism : A 3 page essay examining the role of monasteries in the Middle Ages, and using Monte Cassino, founded by St. Benedictine, as the standard against which others are compared. One cited reference. Monast.wps

Importance Of The Ride & Spread Of Western Monasticism : A 5 page paper reviewing the contributions made to Western civilizations by the men and women of monastic communities from the days of early Christianity to the Reformation. It is argued that these communities, where service to God and humanity superseded personal concerns, were significant in making Christianity a worldwide religion as well as preserving much of the knowledge of ancient Graeco-Roman civilization that could have been lost during the Middle Ages. In addition, the contribution of monasticism to the understanding of egalitarian communal life, to art, music and architecture, and to scholarship is considered. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Monasticism.doc

12th Century Renaissance & Intellect : A 5 page paper discussing the cause of the intellectual changes that occurred during the renaissance period in Europe. Many people have stated that the cause of these changes was due to the education and knowledge available through the monasteries of that time, but the monasteries were limited to the texts they contained. Their exposure to the world outside of Europe was very limited. The idea that the Crusades changed the intellectual face of the Europeans is the argument given. Bibliography lists 1 source. 12cenren.wps

How The Crusades Influenced A Cultural Change In Art and Literature : 15 pages in length. The Crusades were highly influential with regard to the cultural changes in art and literature. Their contributions are noted in any number of ways, which are easily detected merely by interpreting the number of literary works and artistic designs that were prevalent during that period. There existed a certain political correctness that was associated with the manner in which the crusades influenced -- and even represented -- the art and literature that followed their lead. The writer discusses how the Crusades afforded a considerably elevated level of civilized culture as it pertained to artistic and literary styles. Bibliography lists 10 sources. Crusade1.wps

The Inquisition As A Response To Heresy : A 4 page research paper which explores the way the Church regarded heresy, and the formation of the Inquisition as a response to this problem. Bibliography lists 3 sources. Hersyinq.wps

Heretic to Witch /The Evolution of Terror : A 4 page research paper which examines how the image of the heretic evolved into that of the witch during the time of the Inquisition. Bibliography lists 3 sources. Herewitc.wps

Reasons for the Great European Witch Hunt : This 10 page report (which includes a 2 page annotated bibliography) discusses the witch hunt that took place in Europe in the 15th and 16th centuries. Religious issues, the status of women, and the hysteria of the "common" people are discussed. Bibliography lists 7 sources. Witcreas.wps

Judaism vs. Catholicism / Before The Inquisition : An 8 page paper that posits that antisemitism was built slowly over the first millenia C.E., and that prior to the Inquisition, the theology of Judaism and Catholicism followed the same general path, meeting the same intents for the two religions. The paper shows that although the intent was the same and the timing of interpretations followed similar paths, the philosophies behind the two religions were different from the beginning. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Judocath.wps

Misogyny In the Extreme / The Age of the Witch Hunts : A 10 page analysis of Joseph Klaits’ book Servants of Satan: the Age of the Witch Hunts. The writer demonstrates that Joseph Klaits is an unusual scholar. Most historians, particularly male ones, have discounted the fact that most of the victims of the witch hunts were women. Klaits says straight out that "witch craze’s slaughter of women was the result of the spread of woman-hatred in the spiritually reformed elites and its application in the reformers’ campaigns against folk religion" (44). No additional sources cited. Klaits.wps

*Be Sure To Also Check Out Our ‘Medieval Times" Section !

The Transition From Early To High Middle Ages : A 3 page essay on a few of the points marking the transition from the early (or mid-) to the High Middle Ages. Briefly discussed are the influences of rural to urban life and the ensuing governmental changes, the rise of cultural and educational pursuits, and the new influence of the church. One cited reference. Rise.wps

Commercial Revolution of the Middle Ages / Book Review : 5 page review and discussion of the book "The Commercial Revolution of the Middle Ages," by Robert S. Lopez. Book describes changes (mostly economic) during the Middle Ages and surrounding periods in Europe. Excellent for those studying courses relevant to the History of Western Civilization. Commrevo.wps

Demon Iconography Flourished Throughout The Art Of The Middle Ages : 11 pages in length. Numerous examples have been discovered of the influence, both artistically and ecclesiastically, of the presence of the devil in the lives of common people and saints depicted in the many carvings, sculptures, and paintings of medieval times. Bibliography lists 8 sources. Demonico.wps

The Rise of Universities In the Middle Ages : A 5 page research paper which looks at how this intrinsic part of Western civilization originated during a time in history which is thought of as the "Dark Ages." The writer points out how only a handful of the Western institutions can claim the continuous longevity of universities. Bibliography lists 5 sources. RisoUniv.wps.

Islam & The Baptism Of Europe : A 3 page essay on the relationship of the five pillars of Islam to the Baptism of Europe and the effect of Neoplatonism on the growth of both Islam and Christianity. One cited reference. Islam.wps

The European Renaissance : This 7 page paper examines the impact of the European Renaissance on the concept of an absolute monarchy in France. In addition, it discusses the resulting Baroque period and the scientific revolution that were directly attributed to the Renaissance and the turmoil caused as a result. Frenchmo.wps

Renaissance History / The Moral Philosophy of the Humanists : A 9 page paper that provides an overview of the issue of morality and man's human nature as they relate to the Humanists of Renaissance Europe. Bibliography lists 3 sources. Renhum.wps

The Renaissance & Humanism In the Art and Music in San Marco, Venice : A 12 page paper that provides a comprehensive overview of the significant features of the art and music of San Marco, Venice during the Renaissance era and considers the relationship between the art and the ideal of humanism. Bibliography lists 7 sources. Venicen.wps

Women In The Renaissance Thru The French Revolution / Voices from the Silence :
An 11 page paper on how women were subjugated in the Renaissance and started to get serious about their status during the French Revolution. The paper postulates that voices where heard throughout the 300-year period as well. Bibliography lists approximately 10 sources. Renwomn.wps

Prostitution in the Middle Ages : A 10 page paper discussing prostitution and its evolution during the Middle Ages. Reasons women entered prostitution, what their choices were, and society’s viewpoints and condemnation are also reviewed. Bibliography lists 11 sources. Midprost.wps

Human Happiness & Passion / Montaigne To Mill : A 14 page paper that utilizes the literature of the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries to represent common perspectives about the themes of human happiness, love, passion, and the human condition during varying times in European history. Descartes, Hegel, Hume, Keats, & Marx are among the many authors discussed. Bibliography lists 16 sources. Humanhap.wps

A History of Dictionaries : This 7 page paper provides an overview of the "invention" of dictionaries, their evolution over time, and their role in the development of human communication. Bibliography lists four sources. Diction.wps

History of Writing : A 10 page paper which gives an historical overview of the history of writing, beginning with the hieroglyphics and progressing to present day. Discusses such achievements as Gutenberg's printing press and the creation of punctuation. Bibliography lists 7 sources. Writing.wps

The Legacy Of The Vikings : A 4 page review of P. Sawyer's "Age of Vikings" -- a book describing the activities of Viking people. The Vikings were Nordic people including but not limited to Danes, Swedes, and Norwegians, who ranged abroad during a period of dynamic Scandinavian expansion in the Middle Ages, from about the year 800 A.D. until 1100 A.D. Sawyer is particularly concerned with presenting the contributions & accomplishments of the Viking people over the centuries. No other sources cited. Vikingbk.wps

The Vikings / Villains or Heroes? : A 5 page research paper which examines whether the Vikings were primarily a constructive or a destructive force in European development. The writer shows that while the term "Viking" has been used to describe those who made brutal raids on European coastal settlements, it has also been used to describe the peaceful Scandinavian farmers, traders and craftsmen who brought beneficial skills to the European countries in which they settled. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Vikings.wps

Christopher Columbus : 4 page analytical review of "Admiral of the Ocean Sea," a book by Samuel Eliot Morison that goes into great detail about Christopher Columbus and his voyage to the "New World." No Bibliography. Chriscol.wps

Young Men and Fire / Youth, Identity & Tragedy : A 5 page paper that provides an overview of the issues of youth, identification and tragedy in Norman Maclean's Young Men and Fire -- an account of 1949’s Mann Gulch fire. No additional sources cited. Maclean.wps

Dr. Martin Luther King & The Dilemma Of The American Negro / Then & Now : An 8 page essay exploring the conditions described in Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s book, "Where Do We Go From Here: Chaos or Community?", to conditions for the African American in 1997, thirty years after the book was published. Specifically, Chapter IV is reviewed and compared to conditions of racism and opportunities in both eras. The writer offers examples and the thesis that conditions have definitely changed for the better but racism is still prevalent in the country. Two additional sources are cited. Dilemma.wps

Eurocentricism As An Obstacle To Learning True Latin-American History : A 4 page look at issues concerning the Pre-Columbian Americas. The writer stresses that fact that civilizations covered the continent long before the arrival of the Europeans and never considered themselves to be "of the Americas." The journey of Columbus was only a "landmark" event from a Eurocentric perspective. Of particular importance in this essay is that we cannot possibly attempt to understand the diversified culture of Pre-Colombians, Native Indians, and so forth-- because most records were destroyed by the arriving Europeans--who re-wrote history from their own perspective. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Precolum.wps

Influence of Military Revolution in the Rise of Nation-States : A 4 page research paper which examines the rise of France, Russia and Prussia as strong nations towards the end of the seventeenth century. The writer argues that this was due to a "military revolution" in which the military buildup of each nation contributed significantly to its rise. Bibliography lists 3 sources. Milirev.wps

Pope Gregory VII : An 10 page paper on Pope Gregory VII (papacy 1073-1084). This paper presents a history of his political dealings and philosophies under the precept of his visions which are: that the church should control the government and that an army of Christian Knights should go forth and ensure, at whatever cost, the conversion of all humanity to Catholicism. He did not instigate the Crusades in his time, but he fathered the idea and it was carried out beginning ten years after his death. The paper presents in detail his political dealings with King Henry IV under his precept that the church should rule over kings and lords. Bibliography lists 8 sources. Gregory.wps

The Foundation of Early Modern Europe 1460-1559 : A 3 page paper describing key events occurring during this time period. The writer details the accomplishments of the Renaissance artists and describes the political structure of Europe during the 15th and 16th centuries. No Bibliography. Europe.wps

Family Life During the Middle Ages : A 6 page research paper focusing on the family, but specifically on the involvement of the church and castle within that family. The writer describes the way of life for both the upper and lower classes, and relevant information regarding this time period. Middleag.wps

The Role of Minstrels During the Middle Ages: A complete 5 page overview of the varying roles that minstrels played during the Middle Ages. The focus of the discussion is upon different types of music, instrumentation, lyrics, Gregorian chants, etc;-- Some mention of jugglers, fiddlers, dancers, and jesters exists in the body of the paper as well. Bibliography lists 12 sources. Minsrpt.wps

Agriculture in the Middle Ages : A 5 page piece on the communities that established agriculture in the middle ages, the types of farming technology used, and the inner workings of the community hierarchy as it relates to farming. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Medagri.wps

Importance of the Reformation in Europe : A 5 page research paper on the effect of the Protestant Reformation on Europe in the Sixteenth century. The writer details how each country reacted politically and socially. Bibliography lists 3 sources. Reform.wps

Women & Christian Witch Hunts During The Reformation : During the Reformation era, persecution of women whom the Catholic Church perceived to be "witches" was at an all-time high. This 12 page paper examines sociopolitical issues from that time as well as specific theological views on witchery and witchcraft. It is argued that fear and ignorance towards women (i.e., "the transformation of the witch from wanton woman to bad wife") led to much of the scare and confusion. A final section also compares the persecution of women as witches during the Reformation with that of Jewish people during the same period. Bibliography lists 7 sources. Witchcra.wps

The Decline Of Witch Hunts / End Of A Nightmare : A 4 page research paper which examines why the witch-hunts of Europe finally declined in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries after plaguing the continent for centuries. Bibliography lists 1 source. Declinew.wps

The Decline of the Witch Hunts / The End Of The Nightmare : A 4 page research paper which examines why the witch-hunts of Europe finally declined in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries after plaguing the continent for centuries. Bibliography lists 1 source. Declinew.wps

Renaissance -- Groundwork Of The Western World : A 6 page paper discussing the Renaissance and its differences and similarities to contemporary society. The writer briefly examines science, culture, politics, philosophy, and other key aspects of the culture. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Westworl.wps

Galileo's Letter to the Dutchess : 5 page analytical review of an infamous letter from Galileo to the Dutchess in his own defense (many accused him of disrespecting principles set forth in the bible). Please send e-mail to request more information. No Bibliography. Galileo.wps

Galileo Galilei - His Impact On Our Lives Today : A 7 page paper on the Renaissance mathematician, scientist and inventor which examines his legacy to us as we live in a modern world influenced by the scientific perspectives and methods he espoused during his life. Current applications of discoveries, inventions, and philosophy of science pioneered by Galileo in a wider variety of fields are discussed. Bibliography list 17 Sources. Galpap.wps

Galileo Galelei and the Heliocentric Model : 10 pages in length. A discussion of the life and works of Galileo and the religious controversy that surrounded his heliocentric model. Galileo was among the first to suggest that the planets revolved around the sun and not around the Earth. The specific reason and issues surrounding his condemnation are examined. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Galile2.wps

Turmoil Created By The Heliocentric Theory : A 9 page history of the turmoil created by the revelation of the heliocentric theory by Copernicus, Keppler and Galileo in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Bibliography lists nine sources. Earthmov.wps

The Gothic Cathedrals : 15 pages on the Gothic cathedral movement between 1100 - 1500 a.d. in Europe. Divides into centuries. Describes Gothic architecture,  changes and developments for each time period. Includes descriptions of major cathedrals for each century. Bibliography lists 15 sources. Gothicca.wps

Westminster Abbey of London – A Gothic Architectural Ideal : This 10 page paper examines Gothic architecture, its attributes and characteristics, as well as the historical context in which it evolved. Westminster Abbey is the specific building examined. Bibliography lists 7 sources. Abbey.wps

Religious Symbolism In The Architecture Of Westminster Abbey : A 10 page essay examining the ways in which the Abbey plays a significant role both in the religious and political consciousness of the England. Bibliography lists 9 sources. Westabb.wps

The History of Traffic Law : A 4 page paper documenting the origins of traffic law in Western Civilization. The writer provides an overview of the basic history from thousands of years ago to the present (literally from chariots to automobiles !) behind traffic laws and the progression from the origin to the need for laws in the present day. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Lawtraff.wps

Isaac Newton vs. William Blake : An 11 page discussion of the move from the Romantic into the Modern World (transitions from Romanticism to Realism) with a comparison & contrast of Sir Isaac Newton and William Blake complemented by a discussion their differences and similarities. Bibliography lists 2 sources. Blakenew.wps

Origins of the Santa Claus Legend : A 10 page paper discussing the history behind the legend of Santa Claus and the traditions accepted in American culture today. The writer attempts to put into perspective the life of Nicholas of Myra and the good deeds that brought him to fame. Nicholas' became legendary after committing a number of acts of kindness, including destroying the temple of Artemis in Patara. Critics argue that Nicholas' was not a humanitarian, but a religious zealot. The writer attempts to answer this charge, while also presenting the legend's importance in European and American traditions. Bibliography lists 8 sources. Claus.wps

Leonardo DaVinci : A 10 page overview of Leonardo DaVinci's life & work. Bibliography lists 7 sources. End notes. Davinci.wps

Saint Gregory of Nyssa : This 7 page paper explores this historical figure's life as well as his contributions to theology. St. Gregory believed that stability is perfection and that alteration is not good; thus it was inevitable that humankind "fell" from perfection and needed to return to a static state of existence that they so admired.Bibliography lists 8 sources. Nyssa.wps

Vlad Tepes : A 5 page paper on the man most often noted as the original Dracula. Most of the paper is a general description of his life and times, with the end of the paper giving a brief analysis of what can be inferred from his life. Bibliography included. Vladtepe.wps

Luther and Erasmus on Sin and Salvation: A 5 page research paper on two great figures of the Reformation and their religious views. The writer details theories of the sacraments and whether faith or works were primary to salvation. Bibliography lists 2 sources. Erasmus.doc

Film Review / The Return of Martin Guerre and the Sixteenth Century: A 5 page essay on the movie of the same name and what it shows about life in the period . The writer details the place of women, social mobility, changing rights, and facets of everyday life. No bibliography. Guerre.wps

Nostradamus / Life & Works : A 3 page look at the life of Michel de Nostradamus, the "man who saw tomorrow," his work in saving victims of the Plague, his oath of secrecy, and some of the true predictions he is believed to have made about our own present and future. Bibliography lists 2 sources. Nostrada.wps

The Social Structure of Portugal as Reflected in the Work of Eça de Queiroz : A 6 page paper primarily dealing with the social history of Portugal. It discusses how little Portugal changed between the thirteenth and nineteenth centuries, and touches on the work of realist writer Eça de Queiroz, who attempted to address Portugal’s social backwardness. No sources. Queiroz.wps

Othello / In The Tradition Of The Renaissance : A 3 page essay on the play "Othello" and how it related both to Shakespeare himself and to the Renaissance period. Examples of themes introduced in the story are used to illustrate how Othello was both a hero and outsider... different, yet acceptable, -- and thus, an exemplary figure from Renaissance literature. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Othshake.wps

Othello & Renaissance Humanism : A 3 page essay, -- using quotes from the original play-- which describes Shakespeare's "Othello" as a work typical of the Renaissance's emphasis on humanism. The writer discusses the development of Othello's character and the underlying themes of outsider prejudice which run throughout the story. No Bibliography. Othelrel.wps

Portrayal of Women in European Paintings : A 5 page research paper exploring how women are portrayed in paintings. The writer describes images of women in a few key 20th century European paintings, and the social and cultural influences on these portrayals. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Artfemi2.wps

Human Nature in Renaissance Art : A 20 page paper describing the view of human nature on renaissance art. The writer describes the Renaissance belief in humanism and its effects on the view of human nature and how this is portrayed in art of the time. Bibliography lists 10 sources. Renaissat.wps

Everything Baroque : A 5 page overview of the power contrasts developed because of the extended world view during the Baroque period. These contrasts resulted in changes in theology, politics and intellectual thought, which in turn led to different views in economic, social and technological processes. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Evbaroq.wps

Prostitution / A Cross-Cultural History & Analysis : A 5 page paper on this history of "the world's oldest profession"-- prostitution. The writer discusses the shape and form that prostitution has taken throughout history with respect to individual cultures and societies such as the Ancient Greeks, Romans, Church in the Middle Ages, and more recent eras as well. The role of law, societal opposition, and venereal disease is stressed with regard to prostitution in more recent times. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Prosthis.wps

The Colonial Capitals Of Goa & Batavia : A 7 page paper comparing the Dutch and Portuguese colonial capitals of Goa and Batavia. Issues concerning trade and imperialism are explored in considerable detail. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Goaand.wps

Robert C. Lamm’s "Humanities In Western Culture" : This 15 page report examines the theories and examples presented in Lamm’s book, while also reviewing some of the most fundamental aspects of western culturalism and its role in the development of humankind throughout the world. Bibliography lists a dozen sources. Lamm.wps

Trip to England : London is so often associated with fog and blustery weather that it seems amazing that it would be a place for tourists. This 19 page paper explores three aspects of the English culture: the transportation system, family life within the subculture of Rastafarians in Brixton and the relationship between historic landmarks in London and present day tradition and use. Bibliography lists 8 sources. KTtripb.wps

General Overview of Culture : A 10 page research paper that gives a brief summation of the elements and systems that are common to all cultures. The writer demonstrates that while all cultures have certain common features, they are also remarkably diverse, and it is through understanding these differences and similarities that intercultural understanding will be achieved. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Cultview.wps

*Be Sure To Check Out All of the Literature & Music Sections For More Western Civ. papers !

*Papers On Europe From 1700 - Present Can Be Found In The MODERN EUROPE Section !

(*See also 'Mythology')

Ancient Law / The Rights Of A Patron : A 5 page paper discussing the relationship between the Digest that was part of the Corpus Iuris Civilis ordered recorded by Emperor Justinian of the early Byzantine Empire, c. 534. Only two Articles of the body of civil law of the Empire are examined here (Articles XIV and XV), but their relationship to the evolution of the lord and serf relationship of medieval Europe is clear. Remarkably, they even retain applicability to life today. Ariticles XIV and XV address the rights of the patron and the obedience to parents and patrons required of children who were under the age of majority, which at that time was 25. Bibliography lists 1 source. Patrons.doc

Greek Law : 8 pages in length. Greek law evolved as a necessary means by which to regulate society's behavior. What had up until then been left up to the whims of each individual to handle on his own was now a product of fair and sensible legal procedure. It can be argued that there was, indeed, a great need for such a show of order in that there existed no modicum of conformity when it came to retribution. As Greek law continued to be established, it also became an integral component of other areas of life, branching out into political and social implications. The writer discusses Greek Law in relation to the Sumerians; Egyptians; Hebraics; Hellenics; the Classical, Roman and Christian periods; as well as Cicero, Augustine, Plato and Aristotle. Bibliography lists 10 sources. TLCGrkLw.wps

Ancient Democracy : A 5 page paper discussing ancient Greek democracy. In ancient Greece the idea of democracy was met with some resistance, but gradually the people came around to the idea. The various ideas, and particulars are included to give a fairly accurate view of how it developed, how it worked, what went into the creation of the system, and how it grew. While it suffered greatly, as is by no means, the form of democracy we experience today, the subject offers much in the way of understanding the basics of democracy. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Ancdemoc.wps

Privileges of Jews in Ancient Rome : This 9 page report discusses the special privileges and immunities offered to Jews through ancient Roman law. The writer discusses the atmosphere that existed in ancient Rome for the Jewish community and notes the observations of historians of the time. Bibliography lists 10 sources. Jewsrome.wps

The Amateurization of Sports : An 8 page research paper on the history ancient sports. The writer details the origins of the types of sports, the Greek influence, and the Roman end of amateurization. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Amasport.wps

Impact of Greek Civilization on Western Culture : A 15 page research paper which examines the contributions made by ancient civilization to Western culture. The writer looks specifically at such Greek contributions as democratic principles, ideas on the importance of the individual, the systematic observation of the natural world, as well as Greek contributions to the fine arts of theatre and sculpture. Bibliography lists 4 sources. humwestc.wps.

Education in Ancient Greece : A 5 page research paper which examines the educational systems of ancient Athens and Sparta. While the writer deals briefly with the militaristic and brutal educational system of Sparta, the concentration of the paper deals with the development of the educational system in Athens. Topics covered include details regarding elementary education, and how the philosophical and rhetorical schools of Plato and Isocrates developed. Bibliography includes 5 sources. Edugree.wps

What Made Stoicism Appealing To The Ancient Greeks And Romans And Why Were Its Ideas Vulnerable To Christianity? : This 5 page report discusses the evolution of Stoicism, its appeal to the ancient Greeks and Romans, and whether or not it has relevance in the contemporary world. Also briefly discussed are some ideas as to why the Greeks and Romans were "susceptible" to the promises offered by early Christianity.Bibliography lists 4 sources. Stoic.wps

The Greeks & The Romans / & Similarities : A 6 page paper on the ways in which the Roman empire under Augustus was patterned after the Greeks. The writer discusses some of the similarities and differences, and answers the give some insight as to why Rome chose to be that way. No bibliography. Romegree.wps

Greek & Roman Law -- A Causal Relationship? : A 12 page paper discussing whether or not Greek concepts of law had any significant effect in the formation of the famous Roman codes. The paper points out several areas in which a definite relationship is shown. Bibliography lists 9 sources. Grlaw.wps

Leadership in the Roman Empire : A 5 page paper examining this issue in the light of Fletcher Pratt’s book Hail Caesar. The paper looks at Pratt’s contention that just as the growth of the Roman Empire demanded ever greater political and civic management skills, the supply of greatness ran out. Bibliography lists 1 source. Romlead.wps

Fall of the Roman Empire : Rome was a major power because it always made certain its own military prowess was preeminent. There have been many ideas presented as to the fall of the Roman Empire. Many believe that Rome declined morally and the violence and decadence of the societal norms led to the demise. Gibbons has been credited with the theory of the influence and transference of Christianity over the Roman system of Gods and Goddesses that perpetrated the fall. Another theory lays the blame at the feet of the Emperor, that the happiness of the people and the functioning of the government was directly correlated with the personal merit and management skills of the reigning authority. This 10 page paper argues that the imperialistic tendencies of Rome over time and the pre-eminence of military expansionism in the latter stages, was the deciding feature of the "fall". Bibliography lists 7 sources. Romefall.wps

Ancient Greek and Roman Music : This 7 page paper looks at Ancient Greek and Roman music with a particular emphasis on the instruments they used. New research is shown to indicate that people who lived in earlier times were more sophisticated than once thought, even playing similar instruments and employing comparable techniques. Bibliography lists 5 sources.Ancmusic.doc

Ancient Cyprus : This 10 page paper provides an overview of the ancient civilization and culture of the island of Cyprus. Bibliography lists 12 sources. Acyprus.wps

The Athenian Government : 4 page review of A.H.M. Jones' book entitled "Athenian Democracy." Book explores classic governments in Athens and makes mention of their historical relevancy to our own style of democracy in these contemporary United States. Athdemoc.wps

Athenian Democratic Imperialism : 8 pages in length. When comparing Athenian democracy to imperialism, it is essential to evaluate how the two elements played out in their political history. Thucydides’ account of Athenian democracy provides the reader with a significant understanding of why their democratic decision making may have been inherently flawed; if the quality of Athenian leadership was to blame; whether or not the Athenians were short-sighted or mere unlucky; as well as posits the possibility that a contemporary democracy might form similar policies. The writer addresses these issues as they relate to Athenian democratic Imperialism. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Athendem.wps

The Rise & Fall Of Athens : An 8 page paper that provides an overview of the rise of the Athenian democracy and then the events that led to its fall from 510-360 BC. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Ath.wps

The Athenian Polis : A 5 page essay examining how the writers and philosophers of Classic Greece criticized Athenian politics/the Athenian polis in their works. Mentioned are Aeschylus, Aristophanes, Euripedes, and Socrates. No Bibliography. Athenpol.wps

Plutarch’s "On Sparta" / Historical Significance : This 7 page paper discusses the historical significance of the book On Sparta, written by Greek biographer and essayist Plutarch. No additional sources cited. Plutarch.wps

Agoras, Greek & Roman : A 6 page paper that explores the ancient Greek and Roman architecture of agoras (public squares), including their construction, materials, structures, ornamentation, and social significance. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Agoras.wps

Cultural Discourse : A 5 page creative dialogue between 1 fictitious character from ancient Greece and one from Rome in which the two share political and cultural ideas during their travels. Bibliography lists 1 source. Culture.doc

Thucydides and the Peloponnesian War : A 5 page summarization of major themes in Thucydides accounts of the Peloponnesian War. This paper presents the historical perspective prior to the onset of the war. It also contains consideration of the major thematic considerations of the era, including focus on democracy, morality, ambition, leadership and wealthy. The primary source is cited. Pelop.wps

The Culture of Greece & Thucydides’ "The Peloponnesian War" : A 4 page paper that considers the representation of culture presented by Thucydides in his work The Peloponnesian War. This paper demonstrates the differences between Sparta and Athens that led to the war, as well as the perceptions of culture in other city states. Bibliography lists no additional sources. Grpel.wps

Ancient Grecian Temple Priests : A 6 page essay examining the roles of the priest in the religion of ancient Greece. The Grecians had a god for every occurrence of nature and for every condition or abstract thought, and they were responsible for duly worshipping each in order to avoid the wrath of any god or goddess that might feel slighted. Consulting with a god meant consulting with the oracle ensconced in the most important holy places; the priest associated with the particular site was to interpret the sayings of the oracle, translating them into a language that the more common types could understand. Bibliography lists 3 sources. Grecian.wps

Greek Religious Practices / Hellenic vs. Hellenistic Era : Is a 5 page paper contrasting early Greek Olympian religious practices which could be called Hellenic, themselves a result of combining a variety of cultures settling the Greek region, and including the later rise of mystery cults and a variety of philosophies, with the diaspora of Greek culture during the Hellenistic imperial era after Alexander the Great’s conquests. The analysis stresses the many cross-cultural influences during both eras. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Greek Relig.wps

The Goddess Athena And Her People : A 3 page paper looking at the characteristics of the Greek goddess Athena, and analyzing her appeal to the people who worshipped her. The paper argues that in an overwhelmingly patriarchal society, Athena’s spirit ruled in Athens as the Athenian wife’s spirit ruled within the confines of her home. Bibliography lists 3 sources. Athena.wps

Herodotus -- Themes Of Vengence : This 6 page report discusses the themes of vengeance that run throughout Herdotus’ "History," as well as the unique aspects and viewpoints offered by Herodotus who has often been referred to as "the father of history." Bibliography lists 2 sources. Herodotus.wps

Zeus And His Worshippers : A 4 page analysis of the appeal of Zeus to Greek society. The paper argues that Zeus changed from a fickle and furious weather-god to a champion of justice, as his worshippers changed from illiterate tribesmen to the highest culture of the ancient world. Bibliography lists 3 sources. Zeusw.wps

A Comparison Between The Han Dynasty And The Ancient Greeks : 6 pages in length. A comparative paper in which the writer attempts to reconcile how classic Greeks would view China during the time of the Han Dynasty. The writer explores various differences in the politics and culture of these two groups. Chinagre.wps

Aegean Art : A 4 page study of art in the region surrounding Greece before the insurgence of the more traditionally known Greek period of art. Previous to Classical Greek art the Aegean art composed of several types of art forms that generally contained smooth and curved lines. The subject of art was oriented much more towards nature and animals than the Greek period that was to follow. The Aegean period includes the Minoan, Mycenaen, and Cycladic art forms. Bibliography included. Ancient.wps

Ancient Greek Art : A 4 page study of ancient Greece and the art form it produced. This period in time produced many forms of art. The art of the ancient Greeks was to influence the world greatly as many buildings were built with Greek architecture in mind. Even today we still see its influences in most of our government buildings across the nation. The sculptures, paintings and architecture were highly charged and elegant. It was an incredibly influential period in history that has perhaps not been surpassed by any period since. Bibliography lists 3 sources. Grekart.wps

The Use of Color in Ancient Greece : This 7 page paper discusses the use of color throughout the time between and including the Geometric and Hellenistic periods. Ceramics and paintings are among the many art examples provided. Bibliography lists 13 sources. Colorgre.wps

Early Greek Architecture : Approximately 10 pages in length. Paper examines periods and styles in early Greek architecture. Bibliography lists 7 sources (also includes annotated bibliography as well). Grrek.wps

The Greek Parthenon / A Window On The Hellenistic Soul : A 5 page research paper that examines the structure and design of what many consider to be the finest example of Greek sacred architecture, the Parthenon. The writer emphasizes the view that takes into accord the intellectual and emotional engagement that produced the temples as well as the specific forces that they exerted on the people of Greece. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Greekpar.wps

The Evolution Of Greek Sculpture : A 15 page discussion of the evolution of Greek sculpture with an emphasis on drapery treatment over time. Bibliography lists eight sources. Greekscu.wps

The Life and Works of Euclid of Alexandria : This 10 page paper gives a brief overview of the Greek mathematician, Euclid. He was the chief architect of the concept and science of geometry. Bibliography lists five sources. Euclid.wps

Philosophy & The Greek Orthodox Church : Comprehensive, 25 page discussion of the Greek Orthodox Church and its fundamental origins in the works of classic Greek philosophers such as Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. Bibliography lists 19+ sources. Greekort.wps

Epigrams in Hellenistic Poetry : The first Hellenistic poets began to rediscover an earlier tradition and adopted the same themes and style of older Greek lyric masters. This 6 page essay examines the use of wit, sarcasm, and so forth in classic Hellenistic poems. The writer discusses the use of epigrams in terms of the various socio-political structures which probably led to their popularity at the time. It should be noted that the emphasis here is more upon the reasons for epigrams than on the poems or poetry itself. Mentioned are Callimachus, Herodus, Theocritus, and Apollonius of Rhodes. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Hellenis.wps

The Kings of Mesopotamia : This five-page paper gives an overview of the kings reigning over Mesopotania – how they were treated, what ceremonies they participated in, how their subjects revered them. Bibliography lists four sources. Mesoking.wps

Essays on Classic / Ancient Greece : 8 pages worth of short independent essays on the history of Western Civilization. Included is a contrast between the societies of Athens and Sparta (Greece), the Greek's intellectual rationalization for Astrology, and more. Bibliography lists 3+ sources. Kimexam.wsp

Cleopatra, Myth and Reality : A 9 page research paper which explores the myths surrounding the famous queen. The writer’s demonstrates how Cleopatra was first, the victim of Roman propaganda; and then, the victim of 2,000 years of male-oriented prejudice. The paper includes a brief description of Cleopatra’s life as seen through a feminist perspective and also includes references as to her treatment in literature and the media. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Cleomyth.wps

The Roman Empire / Its Rise & Fall : A 6 page paper analyzing the reasons for the creation of the Roman Empire as well as how these same factors led to its eventual collapse. The paper points out that there was simply no way that an Empire so huge and so culturally diverse could be managed at all, let alone imbued with a common sense of purpose. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Romanemp.wps

Looking At The Past For Answers To The Future / The Culture Of Ancient Rome : This 10 page paper examines social problems of today in comparison with those of Ancient Rome's. An historical overview is first provided that concentrates on the rule of Julius Caesar. Facts about Ancient Rome are gleaned from a variety of sources, inclusive of the art work the ancient world is famous for. An intense examination of this early culture concludes that they study of the ancient world is relevant to us today. Bibliography lists 9 sources. Ancrome.wps

Politechnical Contributions of Ancient Rome & Its Benevolent Despots : A 5 page essay that reviews the contributions made by the Roman Empire, despite the flawed personalities of its emperors. In an analogy to 1998 politics, the paper argues that the Roman emperors helped recreate the world by building information highways, instigating systems of international diplomacy, and increasing trade, despite the despotism evident in its "benevolent" leadership. Three emperors are reviewed for their character, Caesar, Caligula and Domitian. Shakespeare’s Claudius is also mentioned. Bibliography lists 8 sources. Despots.wps

Roman Architecture : An 11 page paper on Roman architecture focusing on such subtopics as the dome construction of temples & civic monuments, city planning, theaters, the Domus, triumphal arches, Roman tombs, and more. In addition to discussion culture, purpose, and general aesthetics, the writer also makes mention of the tools and methods used to construct these great architectural works. Bibliography lists 7 sources. Romanarc.wps

Roman Architecture # 2 : This subject is evaluated in terms of its influence on western architecture in this 5 page paper. Also discussed are social factors present when the structures were built as compared with mores and systems present today. Also included is discussion on building materials and style which is compared and contrasted with western art. Government buildings, stadiums, bath houses, importance of the bedroom and magnificence of the gardens are each highlighted. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Romanar.wps

Augustus Caesar / An Overview of His Life : A 6 page overview of the life and accomplishments of Augustus Caesar. Includes his adoption by Julius Caesar, his military and societal pursuits, and the questions surrounding his death and his passage of his throne to his stepson, Tiberius. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Acaes.wps

Caesar Augustus : A 5 page paper discussing the life and accomplishments of Caesar Augustus, the great-nephew and successor of Julius Caesar. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Caugu.wps

Caius Julius Caesar Germanicus: A 7 page paper discussing Lord Acton’s famous quote, "Power corrupts & absolute power corrupts absolutely," in relation to Caius Julius Caesar Germanicus. The writer analyzes his reign and puts forth the theory that he exemplified Acton’s quote, as well as Rome's failure to prevent this. Bibliography lists 10 sources. Caligula.doc

The Military Campaigns of Julius Caesar : An 8 page research paper on the military campaigns of Roman leader, Julius Caesar. In general, the paper details Caesar's rise, his war efforts, his problems, and his eventual downfall. An excellent resource for those studying Roman politics and/or civilization. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Juliusc.wps

Ovid’s "Metamorphoses" / Evidence of Tragedy : A 5 page paper discussing two stories in Ovid’s Metamorphoses, "Apollo and Daphne" and "Pyramus and Thisbe." In an attempt to prove that these stories are tragedies, a definition of tragedy is provided and a number of examples from the book are excerpted. The primary source is cited. Ovid.wps

Suetonius’ "The Twelve Caesars" -- Discussion Of Augustus And Tiberius : A 6 page paper that describes the reigns of the first two real emperors of Rome. The paper gives a short explanation of Suetonius and the framework from which he wrote, then discusses and contrasts the administrations and policies of Augustus and Tiberius, dealing particularly with the difficulties of the transfer of power between them. No Bibliography. Caesar.wps

Suetonius’ ‘‘The Twelve Caesars’’ / Reflection Roman Culture & Society : A 5 page essay that looks at what can be learned about Roman culture from this ancient document. 12c.wps

Terence : The life and works of this important early Roman dramatist are discussed in a 7 page paper. Compared are the author's life challenges to those of the characters in his plays, citing examples from works such as The Girl From Andros, The Eunuch, and The Brothers. Historical facts about Ancient Rome are noted in relationship to the thesis. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Terence.wps

Cornelius Tacitus As Impartial Historian : A 4 page paper discussing the bias of Cornelius Tacitus displayed in The Annals of the Roman Empire. Bibliography lists 1 source. Tacitus.wps

Shakespeare, Mankiewicz, & Plutarch / Three Views Of Julius Caesar : A 6 page paper comparing the 1953 film of Julius Caesar directed by Joseph Mankiewicz with the real historical events. The paper concludes that the film version of Julius Caesar succeeds -- through some slight transformations in historical fact -- in bringing history to life, and making us care about it in the bargain. Bibliography lists two sources. Viewsc.wps

The Sarakatsani Of Mesopotamia & Modern Gypsies in Rome : In this 12 page paper, the writer provides an overview of the Sarakatsani of Mesopotania, -- who are the forebearers of contemporary Gypsies in Rome. Bibliography lists 8 sources. Gyprome.wps

The Roman Mob By P.A. Brunt : A 5 page paper that considers the subject of the Roman mob as it relates to the transformation of Rome from a republic to an Empire. Bibliography lists no additional sources. Brunt.wps

Nobility in Medieval Literature : A 5 page paper describing the role of nobility in the Middle Ages. The writer uses Dante's Inferno as a primary source, and describes how Dante presented the noble class. Bibliography cites four sources. Inferno.wps

The Role Of Early Roman Women : This 7 page paper critiques an excerpt from a book written by Balsdon that deals with the role of women in early Rome. The writer identifies Balsdon's thesis, then offers specific examples from the text to support the thesis. Bibliography lists 1 source. Romanwom.wps

The Role Of Women & Non-Elites In Renaissance Italy : A 5 page paper that considers the role of women and non-elites in Renaissance Italy and outlines the elements of the Italian court. Bibliography lists 2 sources. Italian.renaissance.doc

Women In Medieval Times / Book Review : A 4 page critique of Powell's book entitled "Medieval Women." The writer describes and evaluates the book's thesis : that there were two primary roles played by women in Medieval society; women in subjection to men and women as a symbol of worship. Full citation for the book is provided. Medwomen.wps

Modern Greek Culture : A 10 page research paper on the culture of modern Greece. The writer explores the gender roles, ethnicity, language, and religion, and other important influences in modern Greek society. Specific examples of Greek ritual and tradition are provided. Bibliography lists 10 sources. Mdrngrk.wps

The History of the Greek Community in Chicago : An 8 page paper that provides an overview of the problems and social elements that surround the emergence of the Greek culture in Chicago and that has supported the prevallence of elements like the Greek Orthodox Church in the United States. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Chicgrek.wps

*For All Papers On Plato, Socrates, etc; JUMP to Our Philosophy Section !

Effects Of The Discovery Of Agriculture : A 4 page essay postulating that it was this basic discovery that was the first ‘‘domino’’ in the chain which led to the creation of early civilization. No bibliography. Causeeff.wps

Ancient Laws / Deific Codification : A 10 page research overview of Mesopotamian, Spartan, and Hebraic Law, and the Code of Hammurabi. The writer argues that the ancient laws were directed toward commerce and social control, but were most often based on reference to religious deities. The writer provides examples of the laws and the rulers that created or enforced the laws. Bibliography lists 13 references. Ancients.wps

The Code Of Hammurabi : In this 4 page essay, the writer reviews the laws included in the Code of Hammurabi and compares some of the edicts of this Code with current laws and punishments. Hammurabi's Code established a format that is still used today. Bibliography lists 3 sources. Codehamm.wps

Code of Hammurabi / Crime, Health & Politics : A 6 page research paper on the extent of the oldest "secular" legal code in history. The writer briefly touches on the Babylonian civilization, King Hammurabi, and discusses the intricacies of the code in regards to crime, medicine, and business. The paper states that the code was the predecessor to Greek code, which is given credit for being the predecessor of legal code in today’s society, but posits that the difference is that the Hammurabi code was the first functional set of laws looking out for the interests of all citizens. Bibliography lists 7 sources. Hamurab.wps

The Prisons of the Ancient Worlds : This 7 page research paper looks at the "prisons" of ancient biblical lands – Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece, Rome, lands of the New and Old Testament. Rather than physical structures to keep people incarcerated, "prisons" were primarily slavery, banishment, or death. Bibliography lists ten sources. Ancpris.wps

Aristotle's Views On Slavery : Aristotle's views on slavery are well known and are considered by many to be a justification of the practices of the day. His emphasis in The Politics is the role of government and slavery was a vital and integral component of the social, political and economic world of the Greeks. This 5 page paper examines Aristotle's views on slavery. No additional sources cited. Arislav.wps

Similarities & Differences In Social Groups & Cultures of Ancient Rome, Greece, Egypt, & Mesopotamia: A 3 page essay examining some of the similarities of these ancient civilizations, as well as their most significant differences. Bibliography lists three sources. Socialgr.wps

Hyksos / Semitic Origins : A 5 page research paper exploring the origins of the Hyksos who seized and ruled Egypt during the 15th and 16th Dynasties. Although their origins were thought to date back to Old Testament Hebrew by very early scholars (First Century AD), it is only in the last thirty years archeological finds have indicated the Hyksos had a strong affiliation with the Canaanites. This paper offers evidence of their origins. Hyksos.wps

Ancient Egyptian Architecture : 2 pages worth of notes and discussion about temples and various structures in Egypt nearly 4,000 years old. No Bibliography. Egypttemp.wps

The Pyramids Of Ancient Egypt : An 8 page paper on the great pyramids of ancient Egypt. Focusing upon the Pyramid at Giza, the Pharaoh's pyramids, and more,-- the writer examines architecture, purpose, use, etc; Bibliography lists 6 sources. Pyrdhist.wps

Who Built the Pyramids : This 6 page paper explores the possibility of alien life through a look at the ancient Egyptian pyramids. The paper concludes that man did make the pyramids but both sides of the issue are addressed. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Whopyra.wps

Early River Valley Civilizations : A 7 page paper that describes the social, agricultural, political and religious development of early river valley civilizations. The writer specifically offers a look at the development of civilizations in Mesopotamia and in the Nile River Valley. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Riverval.wps

(The) Etruscans : An 11 page report on the history, politics, economics, language, and art of the Etruscans - members of an ancient Western Civilization that flourished during the 1st millennium B.C. Bibliography lists 7+ sources. Etrusca2.wps

(The) Hanging Gardens of Babylon : A short, 3 page discussion of the Hanging Gardens of Bablyon, their story & features. Focus is upon what makes them one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Gardenba.wps

The Neolithic Age & The Dawn of Modern Civilization : 5 pages in length. An insightful research paper on the importance of The Neolithic Age-- the period just before the dawn of Egyptian Civilization -- which is known to have given birth to modern humanity, art, architecture, religion etc; Because there are so few written records of this era, we know so little about this time-- and yet this only adds to our fascination with it. Specific techniques for Neolithic art, architecture, pottery, carving, ritual, and more are described throughout most of the report. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Neolithi.wps

Ptolemy I Soter / Egyptian Pharaoh : A 5 page research report that reviews the works and accomplishments of an Egyptian Pharaoh who laid the foundation for the modern day university system. A General for Alexander the Great, Ptolemy I Soter's dream was to make Alexandria the world's greatest city. He accomplished this, in part, by establishing the Temple of Muses, his most noted contribution. Bibliography lists 9 sources. Ptolemy1.wps

 

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